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Rodi v Western Australia [2018] HCA 44

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Keane, Nettle, Gordon JJ
Date: 10 Oct 2018 Case Number: P24/2018
Criminal law – Prohibited drug – Appeal against conviction – Fresh evidence – Miscarriage of justice – Where appellant convicted of possession of prohibited drug with intent to sell or supply it to another – Where expert witness gave evidence at trial casting doubt on credibility of appellant's testimony – Where expert witness gave evidence in earlier proceedings inconsistent with evidence given in appellant's proceedings – Where earlier inconsistent evidence not disclosed to appellant at trial – Where Court of Appeal of Supreme Court of Western Australia admitted expert witness's earlier inconsistent evidence as fresh evidence but determined that no miscarriage of justice had occurred – Whether miscarriage of justice occurred.

Words and phrases – "credible and cogent", "fresh evidence", "miscarriage of justice", "new evidence", "onus of proof", "significant possibility of acquittal", "yield".

Misuse of Drugs Act 1981 (WA) – ss 6(1)(a), 11(a).

Ancient Order of Foresters in Victoria Friendly Society Limited v Lifeplan Australia Friendly Society Limited [2018] HCA 43

Kiefel CJ, Gageler, Keane, Nettle, Edelman JJ
Date: 10 Oct 2018 Case Number: A37/2017
Equity – Knowing assistance in breach of fiduciary duty – Remedies – Account of profits – Causation – Where employees of first respondent breached fiduciary duties to respondents by assisting appellant, and then joined appellant – Where appellant knowingly assisted in breaches of fiduciary duty – Where primary judge found profits of appellant's business not direct result of appellant's knowing assistance – Whether account of profits available.

Equity – Knowing assistance in breach of fiduciary duty – Remedies – Account of profits – Assessment of quantum – Whether knowing assistant obliged to account for entire capital value of business acquired – Whether account of profits may be ordered in respect of anticipated profits.

Words and phrases – "account of profits", "actual profits", "anticipated profits", "as a result of", "but for", "causation", "disgorgement" "knowing assistance", "material contribution".

QLN146 v Republic of Nauru [2018] HCA 42

Bell, Keane, Gordon JJ
Date: 11 Sep 2018 Case Number: M26/2018
Nauru – Appeal as of right from Supreme Court of Nauru – Refugees – Where Secretary of Department of Justice and Border Control determined appellant not refugee and not owed complementary protection – Where Refugee Status Review Tribunal affirmed Secretary's determination – Where Tribunal made adverse findings as to credibility – Whether error in Tribunal's reasons.

Words and phrases – "appeal", "credibility", "error".

Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nr).

Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) as modified by the Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (1967).

QLN147 v The Republic of Nauru [2018] HCA 41

Kiefel CJ, Gageler, Nettle JJ
Date: 11 Sep 2018 Case Number: M27/2018
Nauru – Appeal as of right from Supreme Court of Nauru – Refugees – Where Secretary of Department of Justice and Border Control refused application for complementary protection – Where Refugee Status Review Tribunal affirmed Secretary's decision – Where appellant claimed he would be subject to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment if returned to Sri Lanka – Where basis for claim was that appellant may be remanded in prison if returned to Sri Lanka and prison conditions in Sri Lanka are poor – Whether Tribunal had regard to material before it concerning prison conditions in Sri Lanka – Whether reasons of Tribunal met standard required by s 34(4) of Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nr).

Words and phrases – "cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment", "duty to give reasons", "prison conditions".

Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nr) – ss 5(1), 6(1), 34(4).

The Queen v Dennis Bauer (a pseudonym) [2018] HCA 40

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Gageler, Keane, Nettle, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 12 Sep 2018 Case Number: M1/2018
Evidence – Criminal trial – Sexual offences with child under 16 years – Tendency evidence – Admissibility – Severance – Where evidence of complainant as to 17 sexual acts and several uncharged sexual acts admitted as tendency evidence – Where evidence of third party as to Charge 2 admitted as tendency evidence – Whether evidence of complainant and third party admissible as tendency evidence – Whether evidence of each charged act and uncharged act cross-admissible as tendency evidence in proof of each charge – Whether tendency evidence had significant probative value – Whether possibility of risk of contamination, concoction or collusion relevant to determination of probative value – Whether probative value substantially outweighed any prejudicial effect – Whether tendency notice defective – Whether Charge 2 should have been severed from indictment.

Evidence – Criminal trial – Recording of evidence – Admissibility – Where evidence of complainant recorded at previous trial admitted – Where prosecutor told court that complainant had strong preference not to give evidence at trial based on advice from counsellors – Where defence counsel did not challenge complainant's preference not to give evidence – Whether in interests of justice to admit recording.

Evidence – Criminal trial – Hearsay – Admissibility – Where complainant made representations to third party that she was sexually assaulted by respondent – Where representations made in response to leading questions from third party – Where inconsistencies between complainant's representations and other evidence given by complainant – Whether occurrence of asserted facts fresh in complainant's memory at time of representations – Whether probative value of evidence outweighed by danger of unfair prejudice.

Words and phrases – "charged act", "collusion", "complaint", "concoction", "contamination", "credibility", "cross-admissible", "discreditable acts", "fresh in the memory", "improper prejudice", "jury directions", "previously recorded evidence", "propensity", "recording", "reliability", "severance", "sexual attraction", "sexual interest", "sexual offence", "significant probative value", "single complainant", "special feature", "tendency", "uncharged act", "unfair prejudice", "willingness".

Criminal Procedure Act 2009 (Vic) – ss 194, 379, 380, 381, 385.

Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) – ss 66, 97, 99, 101, 135, 137.

Jury Directions Act 2015 (Vic) – ss 61, 62.

Evidence Regulations 2009 (Vic) – reg 7.

Pipikos v Trayans [2018] HCA 39

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Gageler, Keane, Nettle, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 12 Sep 2018 Case Number: A30/2017
Equity – Doctrine of part performance – Where respondent sole registered proprietor of property purchased by respondent and her husband – Where respondent and her husband made improvements to property – Where appellant claimed agreement between appellant and respondent entitled appellant to half-interest in unimproved land – Where alleged agreement did not meet formality requirements of s 26(1) of Law of Property Act 1936 (SA) – Where s 26(2) of Law of Property Act provides that s 26 does not affect law relating to part performance – Whether acts of part performance entitled appellant to specific performance of alleged agreement – Whether acts of part performance must be unequivocally, and in their own nature, referable to agreement of kind alleged – Whether sufficient for purposes of doctrine of part performance to establish that contracting party has knowingly been induced or allowed by counterparty to alter his or her position on faith of contract.

Words and phrases – "enforcement of equities", "equitable estoppel", "equitable fraud", "equity of the statute", "fraud", "parol contract", "part performance", "specific performance", "Statute of Frauds", "unequivocally referable".

Law of Property Act 1936 (SA) – s 26.

Mighty River International Limited v Hughes [2018] HCA 38

Kiefel CJ, Gageler, Nettle, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 12 Sep 2018 Case Number: P7/2018 P8/2018
Companies – Voluntary administration – Deed of company arrangement – Where administrator required to form opinion about certain matters as soon as practicable after administration begins – Where administrator required to convene meeting of creditors within convening period – Where convening period may be extended by court order – Where company executed deed which imposed moratorium on creditors' claims while administrators conducted further investigations – Where deed provided no property of company available for distribution to creditors – Whether deed impermissibly extended convening period – Whether administrators formed the requisite opinions – Whether deed should have specified some property available for distribution to creditors – Whether deed a valid deed of company arrangement – Whether deed should be declared void.

Words and phrases – "arrangement alternative to liquidation", "convening period", "deed of company arrangement", "DOCA", "holding DOCA", "in the interests of creditors", "moratorium on claims", "property of the company available for distribution to creditors", "to be available to pay creditors' claims", "voluntary administration".

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) – Pt 5. 3A, ss 438A, 439A, 444A, 445G.

HFM043 v The Republic of Nauru [2018] HCA 37

Kiefel CJ, Gageler, Nettle JJ
Date: 15 Aug 2018 Case Number: M146/2017
Migration – Refugees – Appeal as of right from Supreme Court of Nauru – Where Secretary of Department of Justice and Border Control determined appellant not refugee – Where Refugee Status Review Tribunal affirmed Secretary's determination – Where Supreme Court of Nauru held Tribunal made error of law – Where Supreme Court of Nauru dismissed appeal – Whether Supreme Court of Nauru erred holding remittal to Tribunal futile.

Words and phrases – "dependant", "derivative status", "futile", "refugee", "Refugee Determination Record", "remit", "taken to have been validly determined".

Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Nr) – ss 3, 5, 6, 31(5).

Refugees Convention (Amendment) Act 2014 (Nr).

Refugees Convention (Derivative Status & Other Measures) (Amendment) Act 2016 (Nr).

Nobarani v Mariconte [2018] HCA 36

Kiefel CJ, Gageler, Nettle, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 15 Aug 2018 Case Number: S270/2017
Practice and procedure – Appeals – Denial of procedural fairness – Where appellant unrepresented – Where nature of hearing altered at short notice – Where appellant's applications for adjournments refused – Whether appellant denied procedural fairness at trial – Whether denial of procedural fairness amounted to "substantial wrong or miscarriage" – Whether appellant denied possibility of successful outcome – Whether new trial should be ordered.

Succession law – Wills, probate, and administration – Grant of probate – Where appellant claimed interest in challenging will – Where respondent granted probate of will in solemn form – Whether appellant had interest in challenging will.

Words and phrases – "adjournment", "caveat", "denial of procedural fairness", "possibility of a successful outcome", "probate", "procedural fairness", "substantial wrong or miscarriage".

Supreme Court Act 1970 (NSW) – ss 75A, 101(1)(a).

Supreme Court Rules 1970 (NSW) – Pt 78 rr 42, 43, 44(4), 66, 69, 71.

Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005 (NSW) – r 51. 53(1).

Shrestha v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2018] HCA 35

Kiefel CJ, Gageler, Keane, Nettle, Edelman JJ
Date: 15 Aug 2018 Case Number: M141/2017 M142/2017 M143/2017
Migration – Cancellation of visa – Student visa – Where Minister for Immigration and Border Protection empowered to cancel visa if satisfied that any circumstances which permitted grant of visa no longer existed – Where delegate of Minister decided to cancel visa – Review of decision by Migration Review Tribunal – Where each appellant granted visa as "eligible higher degree student" – Where definition of "eligible higher degree student" required that visa applicant who proposed to undertake another course of study before and for purposes of principal course of study be enrolled in that other course of study – Where visa holder was enrolled in another course of study for purposes of principal course of study at time of grant of visa – Where visa holder ceased to be enrolled in that other course of study – Where Tribunal concluded that visa holder no longer "eligible higher degree student" – Where Tribunal concluded that circumstance which permitted grant of visa no longer existed – Whether Tribunal made error of law by considering legal characterisation of circumstance rather than circumstance itself – Whether jurisdictional error.

Words and phrases – "another course of study", "circumstances", "eligible higher degree student", "error of law", "factual circumstances", "jurisdictional error", "principal course of study", "reasonably and on a correct understanding and application of the applicable law", "satisfied".

Migration Act 1958 (Cth) – s 116.

Migration Regulations 1994 (Cth) – Sched 2, cll 573. 111, 573. 223.

Hossain v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2018] HCA 34

Kiefel CJ, Gageler, Keane, Nettle, Edelman JJ
Date: 15 Aug 2018 Case Number: S1/2018
Migration – Partner visa – Criteria prescribed for grant of visa – Where Minister for Immigration and Border Protection must refuse to grant visa if not satisfied that criteria prescribed for grant of visa met – Where delegate of Minister refused to grant visa – Review of decision by Administrative Appeals Tribunal – Where Tribunal not satisfied that visa application made within 28 days or that there were compelling reasons for not applying that criterion – Where Tribunal also not satisfied that visa applicant did not have outstanding debts to the Commonwealth or that appropriate arrangements had been made for payment of debts – Where Tribunal made error of law by assessing whether compelling reasons existed as at time of visa application instead of as at time of Tribunal's decision – Whether error of law in relation to one criterion was jurisdictional error where another criterion was not met.

Words and phrases – "compelling reasons", "discretion to refuse relief", "error of law", "error of law on the face of the record", "fundamental error", "independent basis", "jurisdictional error", "materiality", "non-jurisdictional error", "reasonably and on a correct understanding and application of the applicable law", "residual discretion", "satisfied", "void", "voidable".

Migration Act 1958 (Cth) – s 65.

Migration Regulations 1994 (Cth) – Sched 2, cll 820. 211, 820. 223, Sched 4, public interest criterion 4004.

Re Culleton [2018] HCA 33

Kiefel CJ
Date: 10 Aug 2018 Case Number: C15/2016
Parliamentary elections (Cth) – Senate – Court of Disputed Returns – Application to reopen perfected orders of Court declaring applicant was incapable of being chosen as a Senator – Where applicant alleges Senate was inquorate when Senate resolved to refer applicant to Court of Disputed Returns – Where arguments were available on original reference – Whether preconditions for reopening have been met.

Words and phrases – "reopen".

Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987 (Cth) – s 16(3).

DL v The Queen [2018] HCA 32

Bell, Keane, Nettle, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 8 Aug 2018 Case Number: S309/2017
Criminal law – Appeal against sentence – Where appellant convicted of murder – Where primary judge found it probable that appellant acting under influence of some psychosis at time of offence – Where primary judge not satisfied appellant possessed intention to kill – Where primary judge's discretion miscarried by giving primary significance to standard non-parole period – Where Court of Criminal Appeal excised power to re-sentence – Where prosecutor conceded there was no issue with primary judge's factual findings – Where Court of Criminal Appeal found primary judge's findings open – Where Court of Criminal Appeal rejected primary judge's finding that appellant had suffered temporary psychosis which precluded forming intention to kill – Where Court of Criminal Appeal took into account evidence of appellant's progress since sentence on the "usual basis" as discussed in Betts v The Queen (2016) 258 CLR 420 – Where Court of Criminal Appeal failed to put appellant on notice of inclination not to act on concession made by prosecution – Whether denial of procedural fairness – Whether miscarriage of justice.

Words and phrases – "circumstance of aggravation", "concession", "miscarriage of justice", "new evidence", "objective seriousness", "procedural fairness", "re-sentencing", "unchallenged factual findings", "usual basis".

Criminal Appeal Act 1912 (NSW) – s 6(3).

Federal Commissioner of Taxation v Thomas [2018] HCA 31

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Gageler, Keane, Nettle, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 8 Aug 2018 Case Number: B60/2017 B61/2017 B62/2017 B63/2017
Taxation – Division 207 in Pt 3-6 of Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (Cth) – Where trustee passed resolutions purporting to distribute franking credits to beneficiaries of trust separately from and in different proportions to income comprising franked distributions – Where directions made by Supreme Court of Queensland pursuant to s 96 of Trusts Act 1973 (Q) concerning the resolutions – Whether directions determined against Commissioner of Taxation the application of Div 207.

Words and phrases – "deemed assessment", "determine conclusively", "directions", "franked distribution", "franking credit", "imputation credit", "income tax return", "judicial advice", "notice of amended assessment", "notionally allocated", "streaming", "tax offset".

Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 (Cth) – ss 95, 97.

Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (Cth) – Div 207.

Taxation Administration Act 1953 (Cth) – Pt IVC.

Trusts Act 1973 (Q) – s 96.

Minister for Immigration and Border Protection v SZVFW [2018] HCA 30

Kiefel CJ, Gageler, Nettle, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 8 Aug 2018 Case Number: S244/2017
Migration – Refugee Review Tribunal – Review of decisions – Where first and second respondents sought review by Refugee Review Tribunal ("Tribunal") of decision of delegate of appellant to refuse applications for protection visas – Where respondents failed to respond to invitations from Tribunal to appear or provide submissions – Where s 426A(1) of Migration Act 1958 (Cth) empowered Tribunal to proceed to make decision on review without taking further action to allow or enable respondents to appear – Where Tribunal made decision to proceed under s 426A(1) – Whether Tribunal's decision to proceed in absence of respondents was legally unreasonable.

Appeal – Rehearing – Where primary judge held decision of Tribunal was legally unreasonable – Where Full Court of Federal Court dismissed appeal from primary judge's decision, holding that appellant was required to demonstrate error in reasoning of primary judge akin to that required in appeals from discretionary judgments – Whether principles stated in House v The King (1936) 55 CLR 499 apply to appeal from decision on judicial review that administrative decision is legally unreasonable.

Words and phrases – "appeal by way of rehearing", "appealable error", "discretionary", "discretionary decision", "discretionary power", "evaluative approach", "evaluative judgment", "evaluative process", "legally unreasonable", "standard of appellate review", "unreasonable".

Migration Act 1958 (Cth) – ss 425, 425A, 426A, 441A, 441C, 476.

The Queen v Falzon [2018] HCA 29

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Keane, Nettle, Gordon JJ
Date: 8 Aug 2018 Case Number: M161/2017
Criminal law – Appeal against conviction – Where cannabis and drug paraphernalia found at four properties including respondent's home – Where $120,800 in cash found at respondent's home – Where respondent charged with cultivation and trafficking of cannabis found at three properties not including his home – Where Crown alleged offences of trafficking constituted of possession of cannabis on particular date for purpose of sale – Where evidence of cash led as evidence respondent engaged in business of cultivating cannabis for sale – Whether evidence of cash wrongly admitted at trial.

Words and phrases – "accoutrements of drug trafficking", "business of trafficking", "cash", "drug trafficking", "indicia of trafficking", "intermediate appellate court", "possession", "profit making enterprise", "propensity", "purpose of sale", "tendency".

Drugs – Poisons and Controlled Substances Act 1981 (Vic), ss 4, 5, 70(1), 71AC, 72A.

Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) – ss 55, 56, 136, 137.

Jury Directions Act 2015 (Vic) – ss 12, 15, 16.

Lane v The Queen [2018] HCA 28

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Gageler, Keane, Edelman JJ
Date: 20 Jun 2018 Case Number: S308/2017
Criminal law – Appeal against conviction – Application of proviso – Where appellant convicted of manslaughter – Where either of two acts of appellant may have caused death of deceased – Where trial judge erred in failing to direct jury as to requirement that it be unanimous as to specific act causing death – Whether "no substantial miscarriage of justice has actually occurred" – Whether absence of unanimity direction precluded application of proviso.

Words and phrases – "fundamental defect", "nature and effect of the error", "presuppositions of the trial", "proviso", "reasonable doubt", "substantial miscarriage of justice", "unanimity direction", "unanimous".

Criminal Appeal Act 1912 (NSW) – s 6(1).

Minogue v Victoria [2018] HCA 27

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Gageler, Keane, Nettle, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 20 Jun 2018 Case Number: M2/2017
Criminal law – Parole – Where s 74AAA of Corrections Act 1986 (Vic) imposes conditions for making parole order for prisoner convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for murder of person who prisoner knew was, or was reckless as to whether person was, police officer – Where s 127A inserted into Corrections Act 1986 (Vic) stating s 74AAA applies regardless of whether prior to commencement of s 74AAA prisoner became eligible for parole, prisoner took steps to ask Adult Parole Board of Victoria ("Board") to grant parole, or Board began consideration of whether prisoner should be granted parole – Where prior to commencement of s 74AAA and s 127A plaintiff became eligible for parole and applied for parole and Board began consideration of whether plaintiff should be granted parole – Whether s 74AAA and s 127A apply to plaintiff.

Words and phrases – "non-parole period", "parole", "recklessness", "sentencing", "statutory construction".

Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) – ss 10, 22, 28, 31, 32.

Corrections Act 1986 (Vic) – ss 74AAA, 127A.

Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) – s 3.

DL v The Queen [2018] HCA 26

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Keane, Nettle, Edelman JJ
Date: 20 Jun 2018 Case Number: A38/2017
Criminal law – Trial by judge alone – Adequacy of reasons – Where appellant convicted of "[p]ersistent sexual exploitation of a child" – Where offence comprised of two or more acts of sexual exploitation separated by not less than three days – Where complainant alleged various acts of sexual exploitation over many years – Where alleged inconsistencies and implausibilities in complainant's evidence – Where trial judge regarded complainant as reliable witness as to "core allegations" – Whether trial judge's reasons inadequate because failed to identify two or more acts constituting offence – Whether trial judge's reasons inadequate because failed to explain process of reasoning.

Words and phrases – "adequacy of reasons", "basis for decision", "conflict between evidence", "credibility", "inadequacy of reasons", "inconsistencies in evidence", "process of reasoning", "reasons", "trial by judge alone".

Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 (SA) – s 50(1).

Rozenblit v Vainer [2018] HCA 23

Kiefel CJ, Bell, Keane, Gordon, Edelman JJ
Date: 13 Jun 2018 Case Number: M114/2017
Practice and procedure – Victoria – Stay of proceeding – Where appellant commenced proceeding in Supreme Court of Victoria – Where appellant made applications for leave to file and serve amended statement of claim – Where applications refused with costs taxed immediately – Where costs unpaid because appellant impecunious – Where appellant made further application – Where leave to amend statement of claim granted but proceeding stayed under Supreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules 2015 (Vic) r 63. 03(3) until interlocutory costs orders paid – Whether primary judge erred in making order to stay proceedings.

Words and phrases – "conduct which falls for condemnation", "costs taxed immediately", "impecunious", "interlocutory costs order", "only practical way to ensure justice between the parties", "stay of proceeding", "strong grounds".

Civil Procedure Act 2010 (Vic) – ss 7, 8, 9, 65C, 65E.

Supreme Court Act 1986 (Vic) – ss 24, 25.

Supreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules 2015 (Vic) – rr 63. 03(3), 63. 20. 1.

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