High Court of Australia

Agius v The Queen [2013] HCA 27

248 CLR 601; 87 ALJR 906; 298 ALR 165

5 Jun 2013

Case Number: S28/2013


French CJ, Hayne, Crennan, Kiefel, Bell, Gageler, Keane JJ


Criminal law – Conspiracy – Where appellant charged with conspiracy to defraud Commonwealth contrary to ss 86(1) and 29D of Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) – Where appellant charged with conspiracy to dishonestly cause loss to Commonwealth contrary to s 135. 4(5) of Criminal Code (Cth) ("Code") – Where both charges related to single scheme to defraud Commonwealth of taxation revenue – Where two charges necessary because of legislative change – Whether s 135. 4(5) of Code required prosecution to prove appellant entered into agreement after commencement of provision – Whether "state of affairs" could be physical element of s 135. 4(5) of Code – Whether being party to an existing agreement a "state of affairs" – Whether s 135. 4(5) of Code given retrospective effect if offence satisfied by continuation of agreement formed before commencement of provision.

Words and phrases – "agreement", "conspiracy", "state of affairs".

Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) – ss 29D, 86(1) and 86(2).

Criminal Code (Cth) – ss 4. 1, 4. 2, 135. 4(5) and 135. 4(9).

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