High Court of Australia

Kadir v The Queen [2020] HCA 1

Grech v The Queen

5 Feb 2020

Case Number: S160/2019 S163/2019

Before

KIEFEL CJ, BELL, KEANE, NETTLE, EDELMAN JJ

Catchwords

Evidence – Admissibility – Evidence obtained improperly or in contravention of Australian law – Evidence Act 1995 (NSW), s 138 – Where appellants jointly charged on indictment with acts of serious animal cruelty – Where prosecution proposes to tender video-recordings obtained in contravention of Australian law – Where prosecution proposes to tender search warrant evidence and alleged admissions obtained in consequence of contravention of Australian law – Whether difficulty of lawfully obtaining evidence weighs in favour of admission – Whether weighing of competing public interests under s 138 different for evidence obtained in contravention of law as compared to evidence obtained in consequence of contravention of law – Whether each item of evidence admissible.

Words and phrases – "balancing test", "Bunning v Cross discretion", "causal link", "competing public interests", "deliberate contravention of the law", "desirability of admitting evidence", "difficulty of lawfully obtaining evidence", "ease of compliance", "evidence that was obtained improperly or in contravention of an Australian law", "false statement", "illegality", "improperly or illegally obtained", "impropriety", "in consequence of", "misconduct", "probative value", "public interest", "undesirability of admitting evidence", "vigilantism", "way in which the evidence was obtained".

Criminal Appeal Act 1912 (NSW) – s 5F(3A).

Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) – s 138.
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